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Table 4 Two sets of beliefs about the ethics of responding to children’s anxiety before elective surgery

From: The involvement and autonomy of young children undergoing elective paediatric cardiac surgery: a qualitative study

Anxiety is mainly: Physiological, behavioural Social, emotional, reasonable
If children resist, doctors should: Continue interventions as quickly as possible Allow time to negotiate
Coercion and deception are: Necessary if in child’s best interests Not in child’s best interests
Children’s best interests are: To have surgery To have surgery they can understand and cooperate with as much as possible
Adults should: Be in control Inform, involve and support children as much as possible
Laws on adult patients’ consent are: Irrelevant to young children Important guides and standards