- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Hand-grip strength is a simple and effective outcome predictor in esophageal cancer following esophagectomy with reconstruction: a prospective study
© Chen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Received: 28 February 2011
- Accepted: 15 August 2011
- Published: 15 August 2011
Surgery for esophageal cancer usually carries considerable complication and mortality rate. Adequate preoperative evaluation is mandatory to decrease complication rate. Hand-grip strength is a useful measure to assess the extent of aging, nutrition and patient's overall condition. Because preoperative nutrition state and physiologic aging process play important roles in postoperative recovery, we would like to know if hand-grip strength is an adequate tool for such evaluation.
Material and methods
From January 1st, 2007 to December 31, 2008, there was 68 cases underwent esophagectomy with reconstruction due to esophageal cancer in our hospital. After excluding 7 patients of incomplete data and loss of follow-up, there were 61 patients included in the study.
There were 54 men and 7 women. The mean age is 60.7. Most of patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Patient with weak hand-grip strength prior to operation had exceedingly high rates of complication and mortality within 6 months after operation. Compared to other risk factors, low grip strength has highest relative risks for both mortality and morbidity.
Because test for hand-grip strength is cheap, not time-consuming and has high predictive value, it may be included in routine preoperative evaluation.
- Esophageal Cancer
- Grip Strength
- Chronic Renal Insufficiency
- Surgical Mortality
- Transthoracic Approach
Patients with esophageal cancer often present with dysphagia and generalized weakness. Resection of the esophageal tumor with concomitant reconstruction, with either stomach or colon, is the procedure of choice. However, such procedure still carries considerable complication rates. For advanced disease, life expectance is often less than 12 months. Hence, adequate preoperative survey is necessary for all potential surgical candidates because complication and mortality would definitely occurred in a certain portion of patients. One of the important values of preoperative evaluation is to define those with high risks for morbidity and mortality. In addition to routine cancer survey, we often would like to evaluate patient's cardiac function or lung function as well as laboratory examinations. An ideal evaluation tool may be cheap, easy to interpret, not time consuming, not space-occupying, and effective. Hand-grip strength is a proper predictor of immune system, nutrition, aging process, bone density, overall body strength, especially in old age group . The methods of such test is quite simple, we therefore want to see if such test has any role to predict patient's outcome after esophagectomy with reconstruction. The end-points are ICU stay, hospital stay, complication rate, days to start oral intake, surgical mortality rate, andmortality rate within 6 months after operation.
From January 1st, 2007 to December 31th, 2008, there were 68 patients included in the study. This is a prospective study. The study was approved by the institution review board of Mackay Memorial Hospital. 7 patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up, could not adequately perform the tests due to stroke or due to incomplete data, Patients with other cancer history were also excluded. There were 61 patients have complete records for analysis. Patients were tested at least 3 times several days prior to operation. Low hand-grip strength here was defined as grip strength lower than 25 kg in the dominant hand. Other laboratory data, history of other co-morbidities and risk factors were also recorded for risk analysis. The standard position for testing hand-grip strength is standing position with upper limb relaxed down to the sides of the body and palm towards the torso. The elbow is extended without any flexion. The handedness is also recorded for comparison. Co-morbidities included diabetes, poor renal function, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, liver cirrhosis or other disease considered to have great influence on patients' outcome. Complications included postoperative acute respiratory failure, anastomotic leakage, wound infection, early esophageal stricture requiring endoscopic dilatation, and pleural effusion requiring tube drainage. Surgical mortality was defined as either patients died within 30 days after operation or in-hospital death without discharge. Mortality was defined to any patients died less than 6 months after operation during follow-up. Pathology stage was based on resected specimens. Early stage was defined as patients having stage 1 and stage 2. Advanced stage was defined as patients having stage 3 and 4. All patients included were followed for at least 6 months in the outpatient department.
SPSS (version 13.0) was used to help analyze the correlation of each risk factors with morbidity, mortality and hospital stay. Chi square test, Student t-test and Pearson correlation test were used to compare the influences of each factor. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine the most appropriate cut-off value of the tests. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of each factor on outcome.
Surgical Approach of patients with operable esophageal cancer
Start Oral Intake(day)
Respiratory failure requiring re-intubation was found in 12 patients, pneumonia in 7 patients, pleural effusion requiring tube drainage in 5, anastomotic leak in 3 and other conditions in 4 patients. Surgical mortality was found in 6 patients. 8 patients died within 6 months after radical operation. The mean duration to start regular oral intake is 15.1 days. For patients with tumor in the upper third of the esophagus, 2 out of 6 patients had complication but none died of disease within 6 months. For tumor in the middle third, 3 out of 31 patients died and 15 patients had complications. For tumor in the lower third, 5 patients died within 6 months and 12 had complications.
The clinical demographics and outcome in patients with weak(< 25 kg) and normal hand-grip strength
Start oral intake(day)
In brief, patients who have weak hand-grip strength prior to operation tends to stay longer in the hospital, need longer time to start oral diet and may have more risks for occurrence of complication and mortality.
Hand-grip strength is a useful marker to assess patient's physiologic status . It correlates well to patient's overall muscle strength, bone density, nutrition status, and frailty, even better than chronological age . The reason to test muscle strength to determine the aging process is that muscle-specific disease is quite rare. That means muscle strength declined slowly independent of other common disease, such as heart disease, lung disease or gastrointestinal disturbance . This independence helps this marker as a life-long tool to evaluate frailty. Although we all know the number of age itself, that is chronologic age, could not represent patient's true physiologic state, we do not use any better and reliable measurements to take the place of chronological age in our routine clinical setting. Hand-grip strength can be a proper and useful measurement here. Other evaluations, for example cardiac ultrasound or lung function test, often require expensive facility and well-trained personnel. Interpretation of the results is also complicated and required experience. On the contrary, performing the test of hand-grip strength costs less than one minute for both hands and the instructions are simple. Personnel who perform the test need essentially minimal training but keep the patient in adequate position and then read the number. A simple dynamometer can be used for at least one to two thousand times under adequate calibration. It can be a simple, reliable and cheap measurement.
In the analysis of hand-grip strength in the setting of esophageal cancer for elective radical esophagectomy with reconstruction, we found it to be a good predictor for outcome. We have reasons to suggest test for hand grip strength as a routine clinical tools for patients requiring elective esophagectomy with reconstruction. The results of the hand-grip strength did not indicate any specific physiology defect that other tests fail to detect. In contrast, the results of hand-grip strength can be viewed as a summary of overall physiological status [5, 6].
The strength of hand-grip was also related to bone density . In patients with femoral neck fracture, hand-grip strength was found to be a good indicator to predict the occurrence of both mortality and morbidity . Whether the results can be applicable to other patient group is not known. However, it is worthy to evaluate its role in patients planed to undergo an major operation..
The limitation of the study is the small number of patients included in the study and follow-up duration is short.
Patients with weak hand grip strength have higher risks of complication and mortality after elective esophagectomy with reconstruction. We recommend the test to be included in routine preoperative evaluation.
- Smith GA, Nelson RC, Sadoff SJ, Sadoff AM: Assessing sincerity of effort in maximal grip strength tests. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1989, 68: 73-80. 10.1097/00002060-198904000-00006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Agnew PJ, Maas F: Hand function related to age and sex. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1982, 63: 269-71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Syddall H, Cooper C, Martin F, Briggs R, Aihie Sayer A: Is grip strength a useful single marker of frailty?. Age Ageing. 2003, 32: 650-6. 10.1093/ageing/afg111.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Herndon LA, Schmeissner PJ, Dudaronek JM: Stochastic and genetic factors influence tissue-specific decline in ageing C. elegans. Nature. 2002, 419: 808-14. 10.1038/nature01135.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rantanen T, Guralnik JM, Foley D: Midlife hand grip strength as a predictor of old age disability. JAMA. 1999, 281: 558-60. 10.1001/jama.281.6.558.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rantanen T, Harris T, Leveille SG: Muscle strength and body mass index as long-term predictors of mortality in initially healthy men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000, 55: M168-73. 10.1093/gerona/55.3.M168.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Taaffe DR, Cauley JA, Danielson M: Race and sex effects on the association between muscle strength, soft tissue, and bone mineral density in healthy elders: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2001, 16: 1343-52. 10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.7.1343.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davies CW, Jones DM, Shearer JR: Hand grip--a simple test for morbidity after fracture of the neck of femur. J R Soc Med. 1984, 77: 833-6.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.