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Table 1 Characteristics of total patients and by group according to demographic, preoperative, and intraoperative data a

From: Predictors of temporary epicardial pacing wires use after valve surgery

Variable Total Group 1 Group 2 p-value
  (n = 400) (n = 170) (n = 230)  
Age (year)     < 0.005
  < 40 78 (19.5) 62 (79.5) 16 (20.5)  
  40 – 59 187 (46.8) 88 (47.1) 99 (52.9)  
  ≥ 60 135 (33.7) 20 (14.8) 115 (85.2)  
Sex     0.141
  Female 177 (44.3) 68 (38.4) 109 (61.6)  
  Male 223 (55.7) 102 (45.7) 121 (54.3)  
Renal failure (Creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dl) 29 (7.3) 8 (27.6) 21 (72.4) 0.092
Diabetes mellitus 80 (20) 19 (23.7) 61 (76.3) < 0.005
COPD 49 (12.3) 29 (59.2) 20 (40.8) 0.012
History of arrhythmia 43 (10.8) 3 (7) 40 (93) < 0.005
NYHA Class     0.027
  I – II 280 (70) 129 (46.1) 151 (53.9)  
  III – IV 120 (30) 41 (34.2) 79 (65.8)  
Left ventricle ejection fraction (%)     0.006
  > 35 259 (64.5) 123 (47.5) 136 (52.5)  
  ≤ 35 141 (35.5) 47 (33.3) 94 (66.7)  
PAP (mmHg)     0.043
  < 50 360 (90) 159 (44.2) 201 (55.8)  
  ≥ 50 40 (10) 11 (27.5) 29 (72.5)  
Preoperative medications     < 0.005
  Beta blockers 107 (26.8) 45 (42.1) 62 (57.9)  
  Digoxin 42 (10.5) 19 (55.2) 23 (54.8)  
  Amiodarone 18 (4.5) 2 (11.1) 16 (88.9)  
Left atrium diameter (mm)     0.876
  < 5.2 347 (86.7) 148 (42.7) 199 (57.3)  
  ≥ 5.2 53 (13.3) 22 (41.5) 31 (58.5)  
Type of surgery     < 0.005
  Mitral valve 140 (35) 80 (57.1) 60 (42.9)  
  Aortic valve 129(32.3) 57 (44.2) 72 (55.8)  
  Multiple valve 73 (18.2) 21 (28.8) 52 (71.2)  
  Valve with coronary artery bypass 58 (14.5) 12 (20.7) 46 (79.3)  
Valve annulus calcification 70 (17.5) 17 (24.3) 53 (75.7) < 0.005
Cardiopulmonary bypass time (minute)     < 0.005
  < 100 317 (79.3) 157 (49.5) 160 (50.5)  
  ≥ 100 83 (20.7) 13 (15.7) 70 (84.3)  
Aorta cross clamp time (minute)     < 0.005
  < 60 318 (79.5) 160 (50.3) 158 (49.7)  
  ≥ 60 82 (20.5) 10 (12.2) 72 (87.8)  
Intraoperative bradycardia 101 (25.3) 46 (45.5) 55 (54.5) 0.474
  1. a Data are given as no. (%).
  2. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PAP = pulmonary artery pressure; PW = temporary epicardial pacing wires.