Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that predominantly affects the apex of the left ventricle and rarely involves the right ventricular apex or both apexes. Heart transplantation is the traditional treatment for apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Although surgical myectomy approaching the apex has been available for decades, its safety and accuracy greatly depend on the surgeon’s skills and experience.
The first case involved a 63-year-old man with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, wherein preoperative contrast computed tomography findings revealed apical hypertrophy and complete apical cavity obliteration. The patient underwent extended myectomy, which revealed the apex cavity filled with abnormal muscles. Using the transaortic approach, the location of the bilateral papillary muscle was confirmed, thereby providing the required orientation. The abnormal muscle mass was successfully resected, and the postoperative end-diastolic volume was extremely increased. The second case involved a 43-year-old man with an apical left ventricular aneurysm and mid-hypertrophic cardiomyopathy obstruction. The thin-walled apical aneurysm contained a large apical-basal band. Upon detecting the bilateral papillary muscle, mid-ventricular myectomy was performed from the apex. During postoperative catheterization, there was no pressure gradient between the left ventricle and aorta.
We reviewed two cases of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, efficiently treated using extended apical myectomy. Although it is an uncommon procedure, the cases presented show how it can be used to successfully manage cases of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is important to secure the postoperative left ventricular end-diastolic volume.