Visentin GP, Moghaddam M, Beery SE, McFarland JG, Aster RH. Heparin is not required for detection of antibodies associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis. J Lab Clin Med. 2001;138:22–31.
Greinacher A, Ittermann T, Bagemuhl J, Althaus K, Furll B, Selleng S, et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: towards standardization of platelet factor 4/heparin antigen tests. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:2025–31.
Lo GK, Juhl D, Warkentin TE, Sigouin CS, Eichler P, Greinacher A. Evaluation of pretest clinical score (4 T”s) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two clinical settings. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:759–65.
Cuker A, Gimotty PA, Crowther MA, Warkentin TE. Predictive value of the 4Ts scoring system for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood. 2012;120:4160–7.
Greinacher A, Farner B, Kroll H, Kohlmann T, Warkentin TE, Eichler P. Clinical features of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia including risk factors for thrombosis. A retrospective analysis of 408 patients. Thromb Haemost. 2005;94:132–5.
Kitchens CS. Thrombocytopenia due to acute venous thromboembolism and its role in expanding the differential diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol. 2004;76:69–73.
Warkentin TE, Greinacher A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: recognition, treatment, and prevention: the Seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Chest. 2004;126:311S–37.
Lee GM, Arepally GM. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2013;2013:668–74.
Raschke RA, Curry SC, Warkentin TE, Gerkin RD. Improving clinical interpretation of the anti-platelet factor 4/heparin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia through the use of receiver operating characteristic analysis, stratum-specific likelihood ratios, and Bayes theorem. Chest. 2013;144:1269–75.
Cuker A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) in 2011: an epidemic of overdiagnosis. Thromb Haemost. 2011;106:993–4.
Fabris F, Luzzatto G, Soini B, Ramon R, Scandellari R, Randi ML, et al. Risk factors for thrombosis in patients with immune mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Intern Med. 2002;252:149–54.
Berry C, Tcherniantchouk O, Ley EJ, Salim A, Mirocha J, Martin-Stone S, et al. Overdiagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in surgical ICU patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2011;213:10–7. discussion 17.
Link A, Girndt M, Selejan S, Mathes A, Bohm M, Rensing H. Argatroban for anticoagulation in continuous renal replacement therapy. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:105–10.
Reichert MG, MacGregor DA, Kincaid EH, Dolinski SY. Excessive argatroban anticoagulation for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37:652–4.
Williamson DR, Boulanger I, Tardif M, Albert M, Gregoire G. Argatroban dosing in intensive care patients with acute renal failure and liver dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24:409–14.
Beiderlinden M, Treschan TA, Gorlinger K, Peters J. Argatroban anticoagulation in critically ill patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:749–54.
Cormack GM, Kaufman LJ. Severe heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: when the obvious is not obvious, a case report. J Med Case Reports. 2007;1:13.
Doepker B, Mount KL, Ryder LJ, Gerlach AT, Murphy CV, Philips GS. Bleeding risk factors associated with argatroban therapy in the critically ill. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2012;34:491–8.
Pratt DS, Kaplan MM. Evaluation of abnormal liver-enzyme results in asymptomatic patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1266–71.
Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, Ferguson ND, Caldwell E, Fan E, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition. JAMA. 2012;307:2526–33.
Williamson DR, Albert M, Heels-Ansdell D, Arnold DM, Lauzier F, Zarychanski R, et al. Thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients receiving thromboprophylaxis: frequency, risk factors, and outcomes. Chest. 2013;144:1207–15.
Seigerman M, Cavallaro P, Itagaki S, Chung I, Chikwe J. Incidence and outcomes of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in North America: an analysis of the nationwide inpatient sample. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2014;28(1):98–102.
De A, Roy P, Garg VK, Pandey NK. Low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin in prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis in critically ill patients undergoing major surgery. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2010;21:57–61.
Le Gall JR, Lemeshow S, Saulnier F. A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study. JAMA. 1993;270:2957–63.
Le Gall JR, Neumann A, Hemery F, Bleriot JP, Fulgencio JP, Garrigues B, et al. Mortality prediction using SAPS II: an update for French intensive care units. Crit Care. 2005;9:R645–52.
Kodityal S, Nguyen PH, Kodityal A, Sherer J, Hursting MJ, Rice L. Argatroban for suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: contemporary experience at a large teaching hospital. J Intensive Care Med. 2006;21:86–92.
Saugel B, Phillip V, Moessmer G, Schmid RM, Huber W. Argatroban therapy for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in ICU patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: a retrospective study. Crit Care. 2010;14:R90.
Fabris F, Luzzatto G, Stefani PM, Girolami B, Cella G, Girolami A. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Haematologica. 2000;85:72–81.
Nanwa N, Mittmann N, Knowles S, Bucci C, Selby R, Shear N. The direct medical costs associated with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Pharmacoeconomics. 2011;29:511–20.
Greinacher A, Warkentin TE. Recognition, treatment, and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: review and update. Thromb Res. 2006;118:165–76.
Gray A, Wallis DE, Hursting MJ, Katz E, Lewis BE. Argatroban therapy for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in acutely ill patients. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2007;13:353–61.
Kiser TH, Mann AM, Trujillo TC, Hassell KL. Evaluation of empiric versus nomogram-based direct thrombin inhibitor management in patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Am J Hematol. 2011;86:267–72.
Engstrom M, Rundgren M, Schott U. An evaluation of monitoring possibilities of argatroban using rotational thromboelastometry and activated partial thromboplastin time. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:86–91.