Open Access
Open Peer Review

This article has Open Peer Review reports available.

How does Open Peer Review work?

Off-pump sutureless repair for ischemic left ventricular free wall rupture: a systematic review

Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery201712:36

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13019-017-0603-7

Received: 19 April 2016

Accepted: 10 May 2017

Published: 19 May 2017

Abstract

Background

Clinical results of ischemic left ventricular free-wall rupture show high mortality rates.

Methods

We reviewed studies published after 1993 on PubMed.

Results

A sutureless technique using fibrin glue sheets or patches with/without fibrin glue might contribute to improved clinical results. However, some technique limitations remain for blowout-type ruptures, and the possibility of a pseudoaneurysm formation at the repair site after surgery should be considered.

Conclusions

The sutureless technique can be a promising strategy for the treatment of ischemic rupture, but serial echocardiographic studies should be mandatory for diagnosing a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm formation thereafter.

Keywords

Ischemic left ventricular rupture Sutureless repair Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm TachoComb® TachoSil®

Background

Cardiac rupture after acute myocardial infarction, which includes ventricular free wall rupture, septal rupture, and papillary muscle rupture, could result in lethal complications. Post-infarction ventricular septal defects develop in approximately 1%-3% of patients prior to the advent of thrombolytic therapy and percutaneous coronary artery interventions. Thereafter, the frequency is substantially reduced to less than 0.5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction [1].

Mitral valve regurgitation caused by rupture of a papillary muscle presents in 1%-3% of patients. The posteromedial papillary muscle ruptures in about 75% of these patients and the anterolateral muscle in about 25%, although complications are less common given the widespread use of thrombolytic and percutaneous intervention therapy [1]. After total papillary muscle rupture, only about 25% of patients treated non-surgically survive for more than 24 h. Surgical treatment of patients with total rupture results in poor outcomes and high mortality. Schroeter et al. recently showed a 30-day mortality rate of 39.3% among 28 patients with papillary muscle rupture [2].

These life-threatening complications mainly occur within 7 days after myocardial infarction. Free-wall rupture of the left ventricle is another mechanical complication that can occur after acute myocardial infarction. However, its clinical outcomes are poorly studied because of the rarity of the condition. Here, the author reviews surgical results of the ischemic free-wall rupture of the left ventricle, particularly after sutureless repair.

As conventional procedures, direct suture closures of rupture sites are employed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Because of the rapid deterioration of these patients with free-wall rupture, the mortality rate within the first week is very high if left untreated. Patients can extend their 5-year survival rates to 65% with conventional surgical corrections including infarctectomy with patch reconstruction, direct closure with or without patch covering, and endoventricular patch repair under cardiopulmonary bypass [3]. However, early postoperative mortality remains high. Iemura et al. reported on operative results from 17 patients including 13 with oozing-type rupture, concluding that the overall surgical mortality rate was 11.8% [4]. McMullan et al. treated 18 patients including 14 with blowout rupture, showing that 11 patients (61%) died after surgery [5]. They also reported four cases associated with re-rupture 1 to 12 h after infarctectomy and direct suture closure were reported, suggesting the limitations of suture repair surgery.

Reardon and colleagues reported that free wall rupture was a complication after myocardial infarction in 4% to 24% of patients and that it was the second most common cause of death (pump failure being the most common cause), accounting for 12% to 21% of deaths after myocardial infarctions [6]. Repair of ischemic free wall rupture in Japan has recently been associated with a high mortality rate of 33% to 38% [7, 8]. Unfortunately, the details of these procedures are unknown.

Methods

We reviewed studies written in English published after 1993 on PubMed, including studies written in non-English with English abstracts as of the end of 2015. Studies were searched for using following key words: ischemic left ventricular rupture, sutureless repair, left ventricular pseudoaneurysm, left ventricular repair, and sutureless repair.

Results

Thirteen articles matched the key words, and they were reviewed. Patients’ profiles, operative procedures, and outcomes are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Oozing type ruptures were mainly reported. Thirty-five cases including 33 oozing and 2 blowout ruptures were analyzed. Preoperative pericardial drainage was performed in some cases. The anterior wall lesions were recognized in 11 cases, the lateral wall in 13 cases, and the inferior or posterior in 11 cases. Perioperative intra-aortic balloon pumping was also employed in several cases. Twenty-three cases were repaired without cardiopulmonary bypass. Patch materials have been changed from Teflon and autologous pericardium to TachoComb® (CSL Behring, Tokyo, Japan) and TachoSil® (Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Dearfield, IL, USA).
Table 1

Patients’ profiles-1

article

First Author

Journal#1

Year

Cases

Rupture type

Per. Drain.#2

rupture site#3

IABP#4

1

Padró

ATS

1993

13

oozing

Yes in 8

3 Ant.

3 Lat.

7 Inf. or Post.

N.A.

2

Iha

ATCS

2001

1

oozing

No

Ant.

N.A.

3

Alamanni

JTCS

2001

4

oozing

No

4 Lat.

N.A.

4

Lachapelle

ATS

2002

6

3 bleeding

2 sealed

1 oozing

Yes in some

3 Lat.

2 An.t.

1 Inf.

Yes in 2

5

Fukushima

ICTS

2003

1

oozing

Yes

Antero-lat.

No

6

Nishizaki

JJTCS

2004

1

blowout

No

cardiogenic shock

Ant.

Yes

7

Matsushita

KG

2004

1

oozing

No

Ant.

No

8

Kimura

JJTCS

2005

1

blowout

No

cardiogenic shock

Antero-lat.

No

9

Muto

ATS

2005

1

oozing

No

cardiogenic shock

Lat.

No

10

Aoyagi

JCS

2014

3

oozing

Yes in 2

Post. Lat. Inf.

Yes

11

Isoda

ATCS

2014

1

oozing

Yes

Ant.

Yes

12

Sasaki

GTCS

2014

1

oozing

Yes

Lat.

No

13

Kurumisawa

KG

2015

1

oozing

No

Inf.

No

Abbreviations

#1 ATS Ann Thorac Surg, ATCS Ann Thrac Cardiovasc Surg, JTCS J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, ICTS Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg, JJTCS Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, KG Kyobu Geka, JCS J Card Surg, GTCS Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg

#2 Per. Drain. pericardial drainage

#3 Ant. anterior wall of the left ventricle, Lat. lateral wall of the left ventricle, Inf. inferior wall of the left ventricle, Post. posterior wall of the left ventricle, Antero-lat. antero-lateral wall of the left ventricle

#4 IABP perioperative intra-aortic balloon pumping, N.A. not available

Table 2

Patients’ profiles-2

article

CPB#1

Patch material

Additional material

PA formation#2

Follow-up

Outcomes

1

No in 12

Teflon

Histoacryl

No

up to 5 years

surviving

2

No

Autologous pericardium

GRF glue

Yes 24 months

28 months

surviving after reop#3

3

Yes in 3

Glubran/Autologous pericardium

BioGluel

No

3-22 months

surviving

4

Yes in 4

Teflon

Histoacryl

No

2 months -7.5 years

5 surviving

5

No

TachoComb

none

Yes 1 year

1 year

surviving after reop

6

No

TachoComb

none

No.

18 days

surviving

7

PCPS

none

Fibrin glue/Surgicel

No.

6 years

surviving

8

PCPS

TachoComb

none

Yes 7 days

50 days

surviving after reop

9

No

TachoComb

none

No.

15 months

surviving

10

No

TachoComb

Gelfoam

Yes 4 months

16 months

1 surviving after reop, 1 died of re-reupture 10 days after surgery

11

No

TachoComb

GRF Glue

No

12 months

surviving

12

No

TachoComb

none

Yes, 8 days

25 days

surviving after reop

13

No

TachoSil

Surgicel

No

20 month

surviving

Abbreviations

#1 CPB cardiopulmonary bypass, PCPS percutaneous cardio-pulmonary support, #2 PA formation Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm formation, #3 reop: reoperation

Teflon: Boston Scientific, Meadox Medical Inc, Oakland, NJ, USA, Glubran; GEM Inc, Viareggio, Italy, TachoComb :CSL Behring, Tokyo, Japan, TchoSil: Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Dearfield, IL, USA

Histoacryl: B. Braun Medical AG, Melsungen, Germany, GRF glue:, Nippon BXI Inc., Tokyo, Japan

BioGlue; CryoLife International, Inc, Kennesaw, GA, USA, Surgicel: Ethicon; Somerville, NJ, USA

Padró et al. reported 13 successful cases treated by sutureless repair [9]. They applied a polytetrafluoroethylene patch over the infarcted area that was attached to the heart surface with surgical glue. All patients survived the surgery and were discharged from the hospital at a mean of 15 days after surgery. Follow-up extending up to 5 years in total showed 100% survival. Lachapelle et al. treated six unstable hemodynamic cases with the free-wall rupture, resulting in five survivors between 2 months and 7.5 years [10]. Aoyagi et al. also reported three successful cases treated with a fibrin glue sheet and an absorbable gelatin sponge [11]. Other investigators described cases treated with an off-pump sutureless procedure using a fibrin glue sheet with or without glue [1218].

Following the sutureless procedures, several studies have reported on pseudoaneurysm formation of the left ventricle. Kimura et al. described a case with such a complication, who developed a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm 7 days post-surgery [19]. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully repaired under a cardiopulmonary bypass. The authors warned that sutureless repair should be avoided when treating a blowout-type rupture.

Following the sutureless procedures, several studies have reported on pseudoaneurym formation of left ventricle [2022]. The reported incidence of pseudoaneurym was 14.3% (5/35), and these 5 cases were reported to occur between 7 days and 2 years. Pseudoaneurysm formation of the left ventricle after sutureless repair is also shown in Table 2. These pseudoaneurysms were diagnosed between 7 days and 24 months after the repair surgery, and all patients were successfully repaired with patches such as the Dor procedure [23]. Additional complications included the development of mitral papillary muscle rupture or ventricular septal perforation after sutureless repair by two patients [17, 18]. Another patient suffered from re-rupture of the repaired left ventricle [11].

Discussion

Nasir et al. reviewed articles that analyzed the outcomes related to conservative and surgical approaches and the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass under systemic heparinization [24]. They concluded that patients with a milder form of rupture could be managed conservatively, but that those patients were at risk of developing a large defect. They also mentioned that the sutureless procedure involving the patch and glue technique enables cardiopulmonary bypass to be avoided and improves short and midterm survival rates.

Sutureless procedures are somewhat different among investigators, and materials applied to myocardial lesions have been changed. Typically, the heart is accessed through a standard sternotomy and pericardiotomy, and several layers of fibrin glue sheets or patches with or without fibrin glue are applied to the rupture site including the infarcted area. The oozing surface is then compressed for several minutes to confirm complete hemostasis. Many surgeons perform this procedure without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass.

Ischemic rupture can occur at any portion of the left ventricle (Table 1). Pericardial drainage is not always performed in the case of deteriorated hemodynamic conditions, which require immediate pericardial exploration. Perioperatively, intra-aortic balloon pumping is sometimes used to reduce the afterload of the left ventricle. Cardiopulmonary bypass tends to be avoided because systemic heparinization may disturb the hemostatic procedures of sutureless repair.

Patch materials vary from an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane such as Teflon to an equine collagen sponge coated with a solid component of fibrin glue such as TachoComb. TachoComb should be applied to myocardium covering infarcted myocardium and healthy myocardium surrounding to reduce the shear stress of the infarcted myocardium. Many surgeons repeated this procedure several times and they applied additional glue drops to the area of myocardial rupture. The sutureless technique, which employs surgical glue sheets such as TachoComb, has become widespread.

After sutureless repair of ischemic cardiac rupture, a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle can be encountered. The pseudoaneurysm can spontaneously occur after myocardial infarction. Surgical mortality and long-term survival rate are poor due to underlying ischemic cardiomyopathy [25]. Pseudoaneurysm has also been observed after mitral valve surgery. Schuetz et al. treated nine patients with atrioventricular disruption after mitral valve procedures, showing that epicardial tissue sealing results in successful termination of bleeding and considerably improved survival compared with the standard surgical procedure [26].

The sutureless procedure is an attractive and simple treatment strategy for ischemic left ventricular rupture, but surgeons should be aware that it has a potential risk of pseudoaneurysm formation after surgery. Large fibrin glue sheets covering the entire infarcted myocardium could reduce the wall stress of the left ventricular lesion. Avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass might also contribute to successful results. Management after repair, including intra-aortic balloon pumping which decreases the afterload of the left ventricle, and other mechanical supports help to reduce the preload of the left ventricle, hopefully leading to better clinical results [27]. Additional serial echocardiographic studies are needed to diagnose complications so that patients can receive proper treatments.

Conclusions

The sutureless technique can be a promising strategy for the treatment of ischemic rupture, but serial echocardiographic studies should be mandatory for diagnosing a left ventricular pseudoaneurysm formation thereafter.

Abbreviations

Ant.: 

anterior wall of the left ventricle

ATCS: 

Ann Thrac Cardiovasc Surg

ATS: 

Ann Thorac Surg

CPB: 

cardio-pulmonary bypass

GTCS: 

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg

IABP: 

perioperative intra-aortic balloon pumping

N.A.: 

not available

ICTS: 

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg

Inf: 

inferior wall of the left ventricle

JCS: 

J Card Surg

JJTCS: 

Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg

JTCS: 

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg

KG: 

Kyobu Geka

Lat.: 

lateral wall of the left ventricle

PA formation: 

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm formation

PCPS: 

percutaneous cardio-pulmonary support

Per. Drain.: 

pericardial drainage

Post.: 

posterior wall of the left ventricle

Antero-lat: 

antero-lateral wall of the left ventricle

reop: 

reoperation

Declarations

Acknowledgements

None.

Funding

This study received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Authors’ contributions

YM has analyzed the references and written the manuscript. The author has read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The author declares that he has no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Jichi Medical University

References

  1. Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley F, Kirklin JK. Kirklin/barratt-boyes cardiac surgery 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2013. p. p446–71.Google Scholar
  2. Shroeter T, Lehmann S, Misfeld M, Borger M, Subramanian S, Mohr FW, et al. Clinical outcome after mitral valve surgery due to ischemic papillary muscle rupture. Ann Thoac Surg. 2013;95:820–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Davis N, Sistino JJ. Review of ventricular rupture: key concepts and diagnostic tools for success. Perfusion. 2002;17:63–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Iemura J, Oku H, Otaki M, Kitayama H, Inoue T, Kaneda T. Surgical strategy for left ventricular free wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71:201–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. McMullan MH, Maples MD, Kilgore TL, Hindman SH. Surgical experience with left ventricular free wall rupture. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71:1894–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Padró JM, Mesa JM, Silvestre J, Larrea JL, Caralps JM, Cerrón F, et al. Subacute cardiac rupture: repair with a sutureless technique. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993;55:20–3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lachapelle K, deVarennes B, Ergina PL, Cecere R. Sutureless patch technique for postinfarction left ventricular rupture. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74:96–101.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Aoyagi S, Tayama K, Otsuka H, Okazaki T, Shintani Y, Wada K, et al. Sutureless repair for leftventricular free wall rupture after acute myocardial infarction. J Card Surg. 2014;29:178–80.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Isoda S, Kimura T, Osako M, Nishimura K, Yamanaka N, Nakamura S, et al. Off-pump multillayered sutureless repair for a left ventriclura blowout rupture caused by myocardial infarction in the second diagonal branch territory. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;20(Suppl):853–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Aida H, Kagaya S. Successful repair of left ventricular free wall rupture with repeated mydriasis and loss of light reflex. Kyobu Geka. 2011;64:1168–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Muto A, Nishibe T, Kondo Y, Sato M, Yamashita M, Ando M. Sutureless repair with TachComb sheets for oozing type postinfarction cardiac rupture. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79:2143–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Nishizaki K, Seki T, Fuji A, Nishida Y, Funabiki M, Morikawa Y. Sutureless patch repair for small blowout rupture of the left ventricule after myocardial infarction. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;52:268–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Almanni F, Fumero A, Parolari A, Trabattoni P, Cannata A, Berti G, Biglioli P. Sutureless double-patch-and-glue technique for repair of subacute left ventricular wall rupture after myocardial infarction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;122:836–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Matsushita T, Ebisawa K, Konishi H, Misawa Y. Ischemic left ventricular free wall rupture followed by ventricular septal perforation. Kyobu Geka. 2004;57:1099–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kurumisawa S, Kaminishi Y, Akutsu H, Takazawa I, Aizawa K, Misawa Y. Papillary muscle rupture after repair of ischemic left ventricular free wall rupture; repot of a case. Kyobu Geka. 2015;68:1019–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kimura N, Kawahito K, Murata S, Yamaguchi A, Adachi H, Ino T. Pitfalls of sutureless repair of a blow-out type left ventricular free wall rupture. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;53:382–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Iha K, Ikemura R, Higa N, Akasaki M, Kuniyoshi Y, Koja K. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm after sutureless repair of subacute left ventricular free wall rupture: a case report. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surgery. 2001;7:311–4.Google Scholar
  18. Fukushima S, Kobayashi J, Tagusari O, Sasako Y. A huge pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle after simple gluing of an oozing-type postinfarction rupture. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2003;2:94–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Sasaki K, Fukui T, Tabata M, Takanashi S. Early pseudoaneurysm formation after the sutureless technique for left ventricular rupture due to acute myocardial infarction. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;62:171–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dor V, Saab M, Coste P, Kornaszewska M, Montigio F. Left ventricular aneurysm: a new surgical approach. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1989;37:11–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Reardon MJ, Carr CL, Diamond A, Letsou GV, Safi HJ, Espada R, et al. Ischemic left ventricular free wall rupture: prediction, diagnosis, and treatment. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;64:1509–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Masuda M, Kuiwano H, Okumura M, Arai H, Endo S, et al. Thorac and cardiovascular surgery in Japan during 2013. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015;63:670–701.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Masuda M, Kuiwano H, Okumura M, Amano J, Arai H, Endo S, et al. Thorac and cardiovascular surgery in Japan during 2012. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;62:734–64.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Nasir A, Gouda M, Khan A, Bose A. Is it ever possible to treat left ventricular free wall rupture conservatively? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2014;19:488–93.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Atik FA, Navia JL, Vega PR, Gonzalez-Stawinski GV, Alster JM, Gillnov AM, et al. Surgical treatment of postinfarction left ventricular pseudoaneurysm. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83:526–31.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Schuetz A, Schulze C, Wildhirt SM. Off-pump epicardial tissue sealing—a novel method for atrioventricular disruption complicating mitral valve procedures. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:569–73.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Misawa Y, Fuse K, Hasegawa T, Kato M, Hasegawa N. Repair of ischemic cardiac rupture and perioperative management with mechanical circulatory assist. Nihon Kyoubu Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 1997;45:141–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2017

Advertisement